Em geral, as bulas apresentaram diversos problemas de legibilidade. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a literatura sobre legibilidade das bulas de medicamentos para uso humano. Utilizou-se a Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online b-on g para efectuar a pesquisa. Todos os resultados da pesquisa foram devidamente arquivados, possibilitando consultas futuras. Estudos descritivos sem participantes no desenho do estudo, i.
Um conjunto de estudos evidenciam aspectos que diminuem a legibilidade, como: uso de textos demasiadamente complexos e. Brussels; 6 Nov [citado ago 12]. London; [citado out 13]. London; [citado ago 12].
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Version [citado ago 12]. New York: Thomson Reuters; [citado ago 12]. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Rev Saude Publica v. Rev Saude Publica. Published online Feb Lisboa, Portugal Find articles by Carla Pires. Lisboa, Portugal Find articles by Afonso Cavaco. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
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Correspondence: Afonso Cavaco. Gama Pinto. E-mail: tp. Received May 6; Accepted Aug 2. Copyright notice. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. RESULTS We identified studies, of which were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants including patients , three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria of studies on the package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Number of studies searched, included and excluded, pear search tools, keywords, and reasons for exclusion; period: January 1, February 24, Exploratory studies with the participation of health professionals Cavaco et al, 5 resume Optimization of package leaflets 2 groups: potential users and physicians An original and optimized package leaflet diclofenac was tested Questionnaires Opinion on technical terms Likert scale 42 potential users 42 physicians Satisfaction on the original package leaflet: 0.
Exploratory studies with the participation of users or potential users of medicines: comprehension studies Symonds T et al, 26 Participant comprehension sildenafil package leaflet Two groups of participants: consultation versus hypothetical auto-administration Questionnaire Blind study Participants: healthy men and 70 with health problems e.
Exploratory studies enrolling health professionals, patients or potential users of medicines In the two exploratory studies group A , 5 , 22 wherein healthcare professionals physicians or pharmacists participated, it was reported that the healthcare professionals were satisfied with the information in the leaflets. Studies on comprehension of adverse drug reactions The presentation of ADR was particularly relevant in two studies group B because the patient comprehension of ADR strongly depended on the way ADR were presented. Descriptive studies The eight descriptive studies 3 , 4 , 13 , 23 , 24 , 27 , 28 , 30 or studies with non-enrolled participants on the usability of the package leaflets group C focused on the following aspects: 3 , 4 , 13 , 23 , 24 , 27 , 28 , 30 i use of legibility formulas, such as Flesch-Kincaid or Fry to calculate values on the association between the linguistic characteristic of texts and the education level of patients linguistic metrics , 4 , 23 , 24 , 27 , 28 , 30 ii identification of specific linguistic characteristics e.
However, the results obtained through the application of legibility formulas are highly correlated according to some studies; 9 The lack of legibility formulae for Portuguese to calculate indicators on the simplicity of texts, similarly to the legibility formulas of other languages, such as English e. Health literacy and the clozapine patient. Adequacy of patient information on adverse effects: an assessment of patient information leaflets in the UK.
Cavaco A, Pires C. Improving package leaflet information: potential users and physicians opinions [abstract] Cavaco A, Santos AL. Dale E, Chall J. A formula for predicting readability. Educ Res Bull. An illustrated leaflet containing antiretroviral information targeted for low-literate readers: development and evaluation. DuBay WH. The principles of readability. Costa Mes Ca : Impact Information; Flesch R. Marks of a readable style: a study in adult education. Contributions to education, [ Google Scholar ]. ABOP, the automatic patient information leaflet optimizer: evaluation of a tool in development.
Fuchs J. Excessive medical information increase in package inserts. Health literacy and knowledge of chronic disease. Gunning R.
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The technique of clear writing. New York: McGraw-Hill; Klare GR. Measures of the readability of written communication: an evaluation. J Educ Psychol. Perceived risk of tamoxifen side effects: a study of the use of absolute frequencies or frequency bands, with or without verbal descriptors. Communicating the risk of side effects to patients: an evaluation of UK regulatory recommendations.
Examining the readability of two package inserts for self-medication in South Korea. Leiderman DB. Risk management of drug products and the U. Food and Drug Administration: evolution and context. Maat HP, Lentz L. Improving the usability of patient information leaflets. Our proposal is based on a continuous and systematic practice of this dominium articulated with other contents taught in class.
We propose some exercises based on various textual genre in order to make phonological awareness significant to teachers and students. Lisboa: Universidade Aberta. Mexer bem. Receita retirada de Petiscos. PPEB; , p. Gillon, Gail, Phonological Awareness. Andrade, M. Viana e A. Reis, Carlos coord. Viana, F. Therefore, we begin with contrasting the notions of gender and sex and with the processes of marking name gender in Portuguese coming from Latin and Romance languages.
Later, we will review the processes that the authors mentioned above consider to indicate the gender of words, by distinguishing morphological, morphosyntactic and lexical strategies. We will present, at last, several proposals for activities aimed at different teaching levels, in order to systematize this information and make it meaningful for teachers and students.
Key words: Grammatical gender; morphosyntactic and lexical processes; explicit teaching. Este contraste acaba por gerar nomes de subclasses diferentes: nome comum e nome coletivo. Veja-se a agramaticalidade dos exemplos 24 e O morfema derivacional pode ser afixado ao feminino 26 , a ambas as formas 27 ou apenas ao masculino Entre estes nomes temos os ilustrados em Entendemos que, num primeiro momento, se podem agrupar os nomes em dois grupos, sendo abordados no ensino-aprendizagem de forma gradual e pela ordem aqui apresentados.
Identifique, agora, o processo que permitiu formar a palavra dama. Proposta 2. Complete o esquema com palavras presentes no texto. Proposta 3. Uma companhia. Proposta 4. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Lucerna. Botelho, J. Rio de Janeiro: Botelho. Teoria da Linguagem. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora. Corbett, G. Costa, J. Cunha, C. De La Grasserie, R. Hockett , C. A course in modern linguistics.
New York: Macmillan. Huber, Joseph. Lucchesi, D. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional — Casa da Moeda pp. Luft, C. Neves, M. M , Nunes, J. Villalva, A. Eram livros maus, eram livros bons — era o que havia. Eram os livros que as minhas tias liam, romances de amor, grandes dramas que faziam chorar muito mas acabavam sempre em casamento.
Foram esses maus livros que me criaram o gosto pela leitura. Que me deram vontade de ler sempre mais. Tenho o retrato de ambos na minha mesa de trabalho. Abstract The reading activities in the classroom are ruled by the national program which, besides prescribing the corpora of the text that is object of study, determines the way it should enhance different reading skills and convey historical, cultural and literary identity marks. In the specific case of. However, the learning materials that support the development of reading skills put into play other texts that transcend the boundaries of literature.
The reflection that we propose focuses exactly on two aspects: Are all texts equally significant for the development of skills in this area, or should we resort to rigorous screening, since each one plays a specific role within the learning process?
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The next question is also relevant, and it is related with the differences between the readings done in school and those practiced by students outside the educational field, in a personal sphere. Should this recreational reading be oriented as well or should we give the students, especially the ones in the 2nd and 3rd cycles of teaching, an unrestricted freedom of choice? Since each text provides students with their own and singular horizon of expectations, giving them, therefore, distinct opportunities to develop knowledge, skills and to form a vision of the world, must all texts be reading subjects?
Are all texts, therefore, good ones? Calvino, Certamente que sim. Quasi Editora. Castelo Branco, Camilo, Garrett, Almeida, Pessoa, Fernando, Vicente, Gil, Herculano, Alexandre, Assim sendo, a leitura enquanto atividade nuclear de aprendizagem coloca-nos hoje novos desafios dentro e fora da escola. No fundo, de modo mais ou menos indireto, solicita-se-lhes o estatuto de canonicidade. A triagem dos textos deve atender ao. De facto, o. O tipo de texto, as metas de leitura, os contextos em que ela ocorre e as diretrizes do professor constituem, pois, fatores que condicionam a grande variabilidade das atividades realizadas pelo leitor.
Na verdade, o NPP acentua a ideia de que. Quais os mais adequados? O que devo comprar para que ele aprenda a gostar de ler? Ler mais.
Por isso se acentua a necessidade de ler, como uma das formas para ler bem. Eles, melhor do que qualquer outra pessoa, conhecem os alunos, as suas dificuldades e podem, com maior rigor e propriedade, adequar a escolha do texto ao leitor. Todos estes autores possuem obras capazes de disponibilizar textos adequados a alunos com esta maturidade leitora. Seco mostra que.
NPP, p. Substituindo-se aos professores? Uma Teoria da Poesia. Bloom, Harold, Lisboa: Temas e Debates. El canon literario. Yale University Press. Genius: A mosaic of one hundred exemplary creative minds. NY: Warner Books. Buckingham, D. Media education: Literacy, learning and contemporary culture.
Cambridge: Polity Press Calvino, Italo, Barcelona: Tusquets Editores. Calvino, Italo, Lisboa: Teorema. Costa, P. FLUC: Coimbra. Acedido em 17 de junho de Ferry, Luc Paris: Odile Jacob Fowler, Alaistair, Fowler, Alaistair, Kinds of Literature. An Introduction to the theory of genres and modes. Oxford: Clarendon. E: Lisboa. Nogueira, Carlos. Potts, John. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte. Kermode, Frank, Pinto, Manuel, In Comunicar Huelva: Espana.
Acedido a 12 de julho de Reis, Carlos, O Conhecimento da Literatura. Coimbra: Almedina. Reis, Carlos Actas. Seco, Eduarda, Um estudo de caso num agrupamento de escolas de Coimbra. Coimbra: ESEC. Este levantamento foi implementado com um grupo de alunos, do 4. Abstract The basic aim of this work consisted in make a brief theoretical approach to the importance of illustration in the education of visual literacy of children, emphasizing the materiality of children's books.
More specifically, it has been made a comparative analysis of the materiality of the book A Flor Vai Pescar Num Bote, from Alves Redol, based on the illustrations of the first edition , compared with the most recent edition of the same title This survey was implemented with a group of students, of the 4 level, from the Basic Education Schools of Penacova, focusing, thus, on the work fulfilled by them, in a comparative analysis of the materiality of the two books concerned.
Key-words: Literature for children, visual literacy, illustration, materiality of a book. Recentemente, em , a editora A quem pertence o livro, ao autor ou ao ilustrador?
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Scott, Carole How Picturebooks work? London: Garland Publishing. Ainda a este respeito, ao. O leitor entra no mundo do nonsense, o que lhe permite um maior entusiasmo na sua leitura. Nas estampas de LP a linguagem visual dialoga, de forma ajustada, com a linguagem verbal. Contudo, torna-se bastante revelador o facto de na. A ideia tradicional de que o texto era para ser lido … e as imagens para serem vistas … foi questionada.
O Veado Florido. Viana, Marta Martins, Eduarda Coquet. Figueiredo, Anabela de Oliveira Maia, Gil Abstract Translating and interpreting idioms or proverbs into sign language raises several issues of linguistic and cultural nature that the interpreter must be aware of and apply in order to guarantee a good interpreting performance.
This paper analyses different contexts where we can find this type of expressions and the different translation and interpretation alternatives we can choose from to render their content. Several examples will allow us to establish a parallel, or not, between idioms and proverbs belonging to Portuguese language and Portuguese Sign language.
Finally there is a report of a study on whether we can find proverbs in Portuguese Sign language LGP and about the way deaf people relate themselves with this form of expression.
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Keywords: Portuguese Sign Language; idiom; proverb; translation; interpretation. Interpreting an Introduction. Describing Language. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho Lyons, J. Lisboa: Litexa Editora Ulmann, S. Idioms Organiser. Boston: Thomson Heinle. Neste sentido, foram envolvidos, no estudo, todos os professores do 1.
Efectivamente, os alunos declaram maioritariamente gostar de ler, sendo que o livro faz parte do seu universo de bens afetivos. Parece evidente que para este lugar de sombra podemos encontrar alguma luz explicativa nos pontos que a seguir apresentamos. Silva, Pereira, Que objectivos de aprendizagem nos permite ele perseguir? Dispy e Dumortier, Palavras, 25, Elley, Warwick, B. Anstey Eds. Paris, OCDE. Castro, R. Almedina: Coimbra. O Jogo do Livro Infantil e Juvenil pp.
Tauveron, C. De la GS au CM. Paris, Hatiers. En muchos casos, los maestros se muestran reticentes —por desconocimiento o por actitud refractaria- a los cambios. Y los cambios que se introducen en las aulas son, muchas veces, simples cambios superficiales. Aunque este sea un Palou, J. Fons, M. En Aula de Infantil. Maestra A. Hay un grupo que va a estar pensando cosas relacionadas con las palabras y con las letras.
Maestra B. Y entonces, nos quedan fijadas mal y cuando las decimos, las decimos mal. Por eso es importante que ahora que ha salido esta palabra, pues recordemos que no es Aguineu y que tenemos que decir zorro guineu. Irene: Si M: y lo puedes escribir Irene: si Maestra B: 1r curso. M: porque cuando tenga un ratito y la pregunte, no quiero sorpresas eh? La ordenaremos en la carpeta verde.
Ahora lo que nos interesa es que no suene. Vale, buscamos palabras con gui. Aina: abierto! Alba: una uve y una o M: es una uve y una o. Gerard, sal a la pizarra y escribe farola M: muy bien, chico. No levanten la mano, sale el que yo diga. Judith: una cedilla M: borra la ese y escribe una cedilla. Pero la forma de concebir el lenguaje escrito y su aprendizaje puede ser radicalmente distinta.
En el lado opuesto, el producido con la maestra del taller de escritura. El comentario de la tutora al ver el texto realizado en el taller ha sido: -si pueden realizar estos textos es porque en clase han aprendido muy bien las letras, su sonido y su escritura. No hay duda que ambas maestras tienen concepciones bien distintas. Ello facilita y promueve interpretaciones y aplicaciones de naturaleza muy diversa, tal como hemos visto. Aprender se considera un proceso y este proceso es tan importante como el punto de llegada final, el resultado.
Se fomenta un aprendizaje significativo y funcional de los contenidos. David Woods , citado en Palou, Juli El pensamiento del profesor. Camps coord. The nature of growth of knowledge in student teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7, Instituto Fronesis. Pasado y presente de los verbos leer y escribir.
Aprendizaje del lenguaje escrito. Barcelona: Anthropos. Buenos Aires: Santillana. Abstract Rejecting the perspective that sees them as disabled, the deaf communities consider themselves linguistic minorities. Under that vision, they claim equal opportunities in education, through the recognition of sign languages as their first languages and as curricular areas. Legislation in Portugal has accomplished these claims. The publishing of the Portuguese Sign Language Syllabus gave the necessary orientations to its implementation.
In this article, we aim to analyse the discourses of actors that participated in the elaboration of this syllabus and discourses of school professionals coordinators of reference schools for the deaf and Portuguese Sign Language teachers. Neste artigo, procuramos dar conta de alguns dos resultados obtidos. Para este artigo, mobilizamos dados obtidos de quatro entrevistas. Para este fim, os Estados Partes adoptam as medidas apropriadas, incluindo: a … ;. Na altura sim, fomos logo convidados. Normalmente ia eu e alguns colegas Entrevistada A.
E punham os meninos todos misturados, do primeiro, segundo, terceiro e quarto anos, mas tinham todos necessidades diferentes. Era quase como se fosse um apoio aos gestos. Este programa curricular constitui por isso um marco nas conquistas da comunidade surda portuguesa. Algumas escolas continuam a utilizar os professores surdos para apoiar prioritariamente os professores ouvintes. A escola disse que sim. Eu continuo a questionar a escola. Alguns alunos tiveram mais sorte do que outros, depende das escolas. Uns entraram para a escola tarde, com sete e oito anos.
Entrevistado C. Os professores surdos quando concorrem para as escolas geralmente concorrem mais tarde. Porto: Tese de doutoramento, F. Ball, S. The policy processes and the processes of policy. Bowe, S. Gold orgs. Cavaca, F. Martins, M. Fernandes, D. Noesis, 18, Stoer, S. Wieviorka, M. To that effect, we will contextualize it by having in mind some key-concepts pertaining to this field, namely in what regards deafness and its developmental and social-cultural implications, as well as PSL linguistic specificities and professional interpretation activity.
The problem is that the hearing world does not listen. Jesse Jackson. Como referem Schlesinger and Meadow , cit. Neste sentido, e segundo Skliar , cit. Neste sentido, estamos de acordo com Jokinen Leroi-Gourhan, , cit. Tal preconceito. Ora neste sentido, tudo aponta para que o CODA licenciado, inserido desde sempre num ambiente bilingue, envolvido e mesclado na comunidade surda, entre tantos outros, esteja. Bibliografia Afonso, C. Alferes, Valentim R.
Coimbra: F. Amaral, M. Bell, J. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho. Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra sd. Perscrutar e Escutar a Surdez. Correia, I. Gallardo, B. La Comunidad Sorda. Grosjean, F. Life as a bilingual, the reality of living with two or more languages - Those incredible interpreters. Sign Language: The study of deaf people and their language. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Laborit, E. Lisboa: Portugal. Ladd, P. Understanding Deaf culture: In Search of Deafhood. Multilingual Matters Ltd. Reino Unido. Lane, H. Lisboa: Instituto Piaget.
A Journey into the Deaf-World. Dawn Sign Press. Preston, P. Harvard University Press. Sacks, O. Vejo uma Voz: Uma viagem ao mundo dos surdos. Sousa, J. Stokoe, W. Why sign came before speech. Washington, DC. Sussams, John E. Abstract Intertextuality is one of the most commonly used terms in contemporary literary theory. According to Kristeva, Barthes, Riffaterre, and other pioneers of the field, every text has its meaning only in relation to other texts; texts as viewed by modern literary theory are lacking in any kind of independent meaning. The act of reading plunges us into a web of textual relations, a network of other texts.
According to contemporary didactics, teachers should offer to their pupils the opportunity to understand that a literary text is not an autonomous entity and it could be considered more thoroughly in the basis of its intertextual relations. This paper offers some insight into what may be possible for directions in bringing texts together.
We illustrate ways in which pupils can effectively read literary texts in parallel, compare them and gather its intertextual links and connections. By doing this, children, can increase their critical thinking and robust their interpretive ability. Using evidence for literary theory we offer examples of teaching resources and good instructional practices. Key words: Intertextuality, interpretation, textual web, comparative reading, Modern Greek poetry, literature teaching. Introduction Intertextuality is not only one of the most commonly used terms in contemporary literary theory; it is also a crucial element in the attempt to understand literature and culture in general.
According to the theories of intertextuality, works of literature, after all, are built from systems, codes and traditions established by previous works of literature. Texts as viewed by modern literary theory are lacking in any kind of independent meaning. They are what theorists now called intertextual. The act of reading plunges the reader into a web of textual relations, a network of other texts.
To interpret a text, to discover its potential meanings is to trace those relations. Reading becomes a process of moving between texts. Meaning becomes something that exists between a text and all the other texts to which it refers and relates see Allen, as well as Worton and Still, , for an excellent outline of the history of intertextuality. The text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centers of culture As highlighted by Worton and Still , we should look at the notion of intertextuality in its two axes.
First, the concept is based on the idea that the text does not function as a hermetically closed and self-sufficient system as far as its author himself as a reader, consciously or unconsciously draws upon his readings as part of the writing act. The second axe of intertextuality approaches the text from the point of view of its reader who during the act of reading establishes links between the text he is reading and other texts he has read in the past.
It is obvious that such links enrich the text and open it. In the present paper we illustrate ways in which students can effectively read literary texts in parallel, compare them on the basis of its intertextual links and connections. We are going to limit ourselves to some illustrative cases of intertextuality available for students in a secondary classroom. By doing this kind of text-to text reading, students develop a fuller and more articulate awareness of literature and they can also expand their literary uptake through detailed critical analysis.
The intertextual text-to text reading suggests that interpretation depends on how a text fits within the larger body of literature Wolf, This particular kind of text-to-text criticism depends on comparisons of texts by the same or by different authors, in the same genre, using similar conceits or stylistic devices, etc. Companion texts that intended by the author to be read together as a collection.
Complementary texts that explore various aspects of a topic or theme. Cavafy and G. Seferis, that explore as we shall see the vast theme of the symbolic journey. Synoptic texts that allow the reader to select a single kernel story, an idea or an easily recognizable plot pattern and read across the various adaptations, versions, and variations of it. We should notice here that literary pieces of an archetypal quality, such as fairy tales, myths, legends, etc.
This kind of texts and stories has a universal appeal and they usually lend themselves to an enormous amount of storytelling. The theme has inspired innumerable stories of all kind right up to many popular modern examples in literature 59 and media. Disruptive texts that present conflicting or alternative perspectives on the same topic or theme. Rereading texts that generate rereading and they are prolific in revisions and reinterpretations. The teacher can simply invite students to reread and revisit the same text. As far as students adopt this intertextual and comparative stance in the classroom, they can be focused on comparisons and contrasts between texts in order to reiterate and emphasize their potential links.
They can also investigate the vast array of potential connections among written as well as media texts such as pictures, music etc. As we indicated before literary texts can be connected as complementary texts assembled to explore various aspects of a topic or as conflicting texts that present alternative perspectives on the same topic. According to Barthes, the very idea of the text, and thus of intertextuality, depends on the figure of web. The figure of spider web reminds us not only the World Wide Web but also the web-like diagrams 2 used in classroom as tools for learning Tompkins, Students can implement the notion of intertextuality in the classroom by making web clusters to brainstorm a topic, or organize and demonstrate their learning.
Cavafy and the poem number 12 from the Mythistorema poetic sequence by the Nobel laureate poet, George Seferis. These two poems establish a very intriguing intertextual-dialogic relationship as far as both of them convey and extend in a quite antithetical manner the symbolism of the journey and its various associations with human life. As representative exponents of modernist aesthetics and key figures of Modernism in Greece, the two poets, make extensive use of intertextual strategies as far as their poetry depend on significant intertextual influences and borrowings.
Their poems are engaged in complex transformations of their intertexts, transformations made all the more necessary by their desire for novelty and radical innovation. As a result, they foreground the active role of the reader, in a way that earlier texts do not. The poem works on two levels: on the most immediate, Cavafy. He declares that the final destination of the journey is not important; what is important is that the journey should be full of joy, adventure and delights.
He implies that personal experience is of great importance and that life is its own justification. Hope the voyage is a long one. May there be many a summer morning when, with what pleasure, what joy, you come into harbors seen for the first time; may you stop at Phoenician trading stations to buy fine things, mother of pearl and coral, amber and ebony, sensual perfume of every kind— as many sensual perfumes as you can; and may you visit many Egyptian cities to gather stores of knowledge from their scholars.
Keep Ithaka always in your mind. Arriving there is what you are destined for. Rothbard 4. Cosa ha fatto lo Stato con i nostri soldi? Riprendiamoci la moneta e altri saggi Italian Edition Murray N. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Audible Download Audiobooks. DPReview Digital Photography.
Educação: Livre e Obrigatoria
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