Chapters on beam dynamics and electromagnetic and nuclear interactions deals with linear and nonlinear single particle and collective effects including spin motion, beam-environment, beam-beam and intrabeam interactions. The impedance concept and calculations are covered along with the instabilities associated with the various interactions mentioned.
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A chapter on operational considerations deals with orbit error assessment and correction. Chapters on mechanical and electrical considerations present material data and aspects of component design including heat transfer and refrigeration. The experiments conducted with particle accelerators are not regarded as part of accelerator physics, but belong according to the objectives of the experiments to, e.
The types of experiments done at a particular accelerator facility are determined by characteristics of the generated particle beam such as average energy, particle type, intensity, and dimensions. While it is possible to accelerate charged particles using electrostatic fields, like in a Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier , this method has limits given by electrical breakdown at high voltages.
Furthermore, due to electrostatic fields being conservative, the maximum voltage limits the kinetic energy that is applicable to the particles.
Handbook Of Accelerator Physics And Engineering (2nd Edition)
To circumvent this problem, linear particle accelerators operate using time-varying fields. To control this fields using hollow macroscopic structures through which the particles are passing wavelength restrictions , the frequency of such acceleration fields is located in the radio frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The space around a particle beam is evacuated to prevent scattering with gas atoms, requiring it to be enclosed in a vacuum chamber or beam pipe.
Due to the strong electromagnetic fields that follow the beam, it is possible for it to interact with any electrical impedance in the walls of the beam pipe. This may be in the form of a resistive impedance i. These impedances will induce wakefields a strong warping of the electromagnetic field of the beam that can interact with later particles.
Since this interaction may have negative effects, it is studied to determine its magnitude, and to determine any actions that may be taken to mitigate it. Due to the high velocity of the particles, and the resulting Lorentz force for magnetic fields, adjustments to the beam direction are mainly controlled by magnetostatic fields that deflect particles.
In most accelerator concepts excluding compact structures like the cyclotron or betatron , these are applied by dedicated electromagnets with different properties and functions. An important step in the development of these types of accelerators was the understanding of strong focusing.
For preliminary calculations, neglecting all fields components higher than quadrupolar, an inhomogenic Hill differential equation. Beam parameters for the accelerator can then be calculated using Ray transfer matrix analysis ; e. The general equations of motion originate from relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics , in almost all cases using the Paraxial approximation. Even in the cases of strongly nonlinear magnetic fields, and without the paraxial approximation, a Lie transform may be used to construct an integrator with a high degree of accuracy.
There are many different software packages available for modeling the different aspects of accelerator physics. One must model the elements that create the electric and magnetic fields, and then one must model the charged particle evolution within those fields. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Accelerator Physics and Circular Colliders A reading guide.
Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering - Alex Chao - Google книги
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Comprehensive reference not a text. Google Scholar. CrossRef Google Scholar. Conte, W. World Scientific, Singapore, Mathematically-oriented modern dynamics text with accelerator applications.