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Your item has been added to Shortlist. View All. Return form will be sent to your email Id:. Fiction Books. After Pierrot has been left alone on stage to confess his crime to the audience—which he accomplishes through a reenactment of how he tickled Columbine to death as she lay in their bed—the bed itself awakens and its curtains appear to burst into flame. When the terrified Pierrot touches the portrait—no longer distinguishable from the body of Columbine herself—he dies, the organic touch resulting in his body fully losing its organic status, becoming entirely a corpse.

Margueritte consistently presents Pierrot as far less grossly material than the dead-yet- alive objects in the room. His Pierrot is a walking corpse, a plaster exterior encasing a void.

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A grossly material interior announces its existence and continually threatens to erupt. His body elicits anxiety over this eruption of an interior corpulent excess associated not with the mechanical, puppet-like cerveau, but with his counterpoint Pierrot-ventre. The evil black arm leads pure white Pierrot into a series of crimes that land him in prison, and when he attempts to escape, the jailor grabs his black arm and it comes off. As Pierrot flees, an enormous black arm rises up from the ground before him, a racially-charged image evocatively rendered by Gustave Courbet in to publicise the pantomime Figure 2.

Pierrot, terrified, turns to stone. Just as the Pierrot-cerveau as described by Hugounet escapes the charge of dirty and naturalist through his puppet- like movements, so the Pierrot of Le bras noir escapes defilement through exterior rigidity, turning to stone.


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When threatened by the arm that represents black defilement of white purity, Pierrot retains his purity by ceasing to be human. Purity leads to sterility. Figure 2. Gustave Courbet, Le bras noir. The frozen body of Pierrot is here threatened by the hybridity of the black arm reattaching itself. Racial hybridity was a contentious issue in late nineteenth-century anthropology struggling to absorb the Darwinian impact of the descent of man from animals.

This nostalgia paradoxically existed alongside a disgust for the mime techniques of such performers as Kalpestri and an uneasiness with markers of the organic in the performed body of Pierrot, a paradoxical layering that reveals conflicted feelings toward themes of corporeal contamination via markers of race, gender and class that continually erupted in late nineteenth-century France. Related Papers. By Marika Knowles. The Joker, a neo-modern clown of violence Why So Sad? His character further developed into its more complex nature: a simpleton who is not stupid, but is innocent and credulous, and completely vulnerable to falling in love.


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  8. However, the 18th-century Pierrot is far from being an exclusively romantic character: as an action figure he is, first and foremost, an acrobat, a dancer and a clown. He performs mainly in pantomimes, in fairs and town squares. His mask wanders with troupes of actors to other places, accordingly changing and enriching its character The grotesque, often violent and cruel, bizarre, fantasy-like and even gross exhibitions become the mask's norm. By the third decade of the century Pierrot is often presented in scenarios and plays as an Italian within the Parisian milieu.

    While his feelings for Columbine stay intact, the street fairground, into which the theater had moved, encourages acrobatics, juggling shows and pantomime. Deburau reinvented Pierrot, combining all the various — and contradictory — qualities of former related masks into one: the new Pierrot is a combination of Pedrolino's resourcefulness; Pierrot's simple, down-to-earth intelligence, the malice of a Clown and the gross gluttony of Gilles. It also includes Pierrot's unrequited love to Columbine, his heartbreak, his anger and his jealousy of Harlequin Perhaps surprisingly, this new figure also absorbed Harlequin's speedy reactions and acrobatic abilities and, additionally, newly acquired poetic qualities and musicality.

    Deburau became famous by performing this complex role with an acquired and carefully structured indifference, with no particular expression on his face, that is — focusing the grotesqueries solely on action, with no additional gesticulations. A contemporary newspaper review described his Pierrot as "a character whose infinite nuances are difficult to render.

    Deburau's Pierrot was born and 'raised' during the incarnation of French Romanticism, which was as fascinated with him as much as with Shakespeare. Interest was particularly focused on fool-related figures: Hamlet and King Lear. These contradictory, mystifying figures, are so interesting precisely because they enclose contradictory character qualities, creating and presenting fascinatingly complex psyches. Pierrot was such a complex figure. He became a symbol not only of the theatrical figure of an actor but also a representative of human suffering, thus partly shedding his original 'mask' characteristics.

    His suffering results not only from Columbine's rejection which continues even when she appears as his wife , which is a function of his mask, but also from a new, philosophical aspect of his existence as an artist: the very fact that his profession means deceit. This same Pierrot, in the case of Deburau, became one with the person of the actor, who is expected to act as if he is in love. The artist-in-love who represents a theatrical character-in-love carries an inner falsity, being simultaneously true and false to his very nature. Even when disregarding the emotional suffering of the character because of his betrayal by his beloved, the very existential paradox of loving and presenting-loving offers and points at a logical fall into madness.

    It is therefore not surprising that a streak of madness is added to the 19th-century Pierrot. Many scenarios written by and for Jean Baptiste Deburau, whose role was later taken by his son, Charles Deburau, are manifestations of this gradual slide and the blurred boundary between sanity and insanity. In these scenarios Pierrot performs childish acts of lawlessness and often cruelty, eventually losing his sanity and becoming "moon struck" — a Lunaire. This mental disease, as known by the 19th-century, combined with the dichotomy of art-as-truth and art-as-artificiality, became a reflection of the artist's paradox of life.

    His collection of Odes funambulesques inspired a younger generation of poets and artists, such as Paul Verlaine in his FKtes Galantes, and Charles Baudelaire , in his essay On the Essence of Laughter, where he gives examples from Deburau's Pierrot scenarios. Pierrot's fall into an unhealthy mental state is developed in later scenarios, plays and pantomimes, most famously Pierrot assasin de sa femme by Paul Margueritte and Pierrot sceptique by Joris-Carl Huysmans Then, of course, the 50 poems of Pierrot Lunaire: Rondels bergamasques by Albert Giraud, all reaching the meeting point of insane brutality and the ridiculous grotesque, are at the center of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire See Figure 1.

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    Giraud's Pierrot, the artist whose heartbreak and feeling of betrayal brought to the verge of insanity, went through yet another personality transformation in the hands of the poet and dramatist Otto Erich Hartleben Giraud's poems in Hartleben's translations were publicly read as melodramas before Arnold Schoenberg musical settings were created.

    Schoenberg came across Hartleben's translation of Pierrot Lunaire through a meeting with the actress Albertine Zehme , who commissioned him, in , to compose music that would be played as background for her reading of these poems. From that point, the ball remained in Schoenberg's playground. Schoenberg embarked into the new project by first choosing 21 out of Hartleben's 50 poems See Figure 3. Why did he choose these particular poems?

    And why did he re-order them differently than their order in the original poem cycle? Clearly, he was lead. His definition of the work as Dreimal sieben Gedichte aus Albert Girauds 'Pierrot Lunaire' draws the framework and structure of his work. Unlike Giraud's, Schoenberg's Pierrot is not a collection of poems but a melodrama, following a narrative logic in a new, independent structure See Figure 4. The content of this narrative makes itself clear when the poems are formally organized according to Schoenberg's plan. The seven middle poems bring the drama into a peak of insane rage, and cruel vengeance, all portrayed as a deadly, demonic ritual: Nacht; Gebet an Pierrot; Raub; Rote Messe; Galgenlied; Enthauptung; and Die Kreuze.

    The drama is gradually brought to a calmer closure in the last seven poems, ending in a resigned acceptance: Heimweh; Gemeinheit; Parodie; Der Mondfleck; Serenade; Heimfahrt, and O, alter Duft Reading the poems and understanding their allusions and metaphors is more important for the perception of the composition than is usually estimated.

    Certain details in the poems are drawn from a variety of literary, poetic and dramatic sources. Pierrot appears in the seventh of these stories, "La Viole de Gamba". Traces of this story can be found in "Parodie" as well as in "Gemeinheit" "Atrocity" , which is quoted at the beginning of this essay. The following short but characteristic quote from "La Viole de Gamba" shows these connections: [14]. Paragraphs of this bizarre poem-story are intercalated with quotes from the popular "Au clair de la lune" song, usually related to as a children ditty in spite of its clear sexual suggestions.

    Pierrot Sceptique by Joris-Karl Huysmans | NOOK Book (eBook) | Barnes & Noble®

    The main protagonist of this song is, of course, Pierrot. Understanding the meaning of "Parodie", therefore, requires an acquaintance with its alluded source s , and the perception of the composer's manipulation of the referenced materials. Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire is, therefore, not just difficult to listen to because of its atonal musical content: today's students — teenagers as well as older students — are quite accustomed to atonality, as long as it is associated with an intelligible semantic content.

    The challenge of accessing this work is, precisely, its semantic content, which is built over layers of historical developments in various fields, from theater, poetry, history and literature. Even if we take into account the need for a translation from the original German, the intricate web of signs — metaphors, allusions, quotations, etc. Often, Pierrot Lunaire is taught through a series of music analyses: motifs, pitch-class collections, their manipulations and inversions, etc.

    These attempts, as far as I could witness, are bound to fail. Music and openness to its aesthetic charm are not dependent on analysis but on a feeling of empathy and direct communication with the work as a whole. Making Pierrot Lunaire accessible and — hopefully — appreciated and loved by intelligent public requires the supply of the necessary information tools that will make its texts and context intelligible. Teaching this work necessitates a starting point common to all students, regardless of background. Such starting point must be a feeling and life experience that they all share.

    Pierrot's unrequited love is such a point. His feelings of jealousy, humiliation, and revenge are the next step. Creating an empathy to Pierrot's character will open minds and hearts to learning more about his story, cultural and historical points of reference, and to an understanding of Pierrot Lunaire structure and content, including its musical content. Giraud, Albert. French poems. English translation of Schoenberg's selection by Cecil Gray. Brinkman, Reinhold. Schonberg and Kandinsky: An historic encounter. Amsterdam, Harwood Academic, , pp.

    Sheinberg, Esti.

    Oeuvres de Joris-Karl Huysmans (French Edition)

    Katritzky, M. Beam, Sara. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Cicognini, Giacinto Andrea. Il Convitato de Pietra c. Spaziani, Marcello. Don Giovanni dagli scenari dell'arte alla foire: Quattro studi con due testi forains inediti e altri testi italiani e francesi. Roma, Ed. Bodemer Digital commons of Cal Poly University.